In this lesson, we’re going to continue our series of charts for connecting words that you can print out for easy reference. Connecting words join ideas and express the relationship between those ideas. English connecting words are divided into two broad categories based on the type of relation they express. Coordinating words express equal relationships. Subordinating words express unequal relationships.
This lesson covers the final type of coordinating words: conjunctive adverbs. Because this lesson is intended as a reference sheet, the examples are not exhaustive. If you are having difficulty using a particular type of coordinating word, we recommend that you check out our in-depth lesson on that type of word.
Conjunctive adverbs are transitional words and phrases that clarity the relationships between ideas. They can appear at the beginning, middle, or end of an independent clause.
|To add a similar idea||alsobesides
|Students need a solid grasp of the fundamentals of reading, writing, and mathematics to do well on the SAT. In addition, students need to understand how exam tests these subjects.|
|To add contrast||howevernevertheless
on the other hand
|The PSAT does not have an essay section; however, the SAT does.|
|To show a result||as a resultconsequently
|English has many words that are false friends with words in other languages. Consequently, you should always check the meaning of a familiar-looking word before you use it.|
|To list ideas in order of time||meanwhileafterward
|The politican began the town hall meeting with a prepared speech. Afterward, she answered questions from the audience.|
|To give an example||for examplefor instance||My brother and I have very different tastes in food. For instance, I like sushi and he prefers barbecue.|
|To compare and show similarities||similarlylikewise||The English Island offers ESL classes. Similarly, the Learning Island, our sister company, offers SAT and ACT prep classes.|
|To indicate that an untrue statement is followed by a true statement||insteadon the contrary
|The new point of sale system is not an improvement over the old one; on the contrary, it is slower and less intuitive.|
|To give another possibility||on the other handalternatively
|The weekday course meets for two hours on Mondays and Wednesdays. On the other hand, the Saturday class lasts four hours.|
|To add an explanation||in other wordsthat is||Some students are kinesthetic learners. In other words, they learn best through a hands-on approach.|
|To make a stronger statement||indeedin fact||My new phone is completely waterproof. In fact, it still works after I dropped it in the sink.|